PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία


  • Paperback
  • 416
  • Πολιτεία
  • Plato
  • English
  • 18 August 2020
  • 9780140449143

Plato Æ 9 Free read

Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read characters Πολιτεία Ithin it During the conversation other uestions are raised what is goodness; what is reality; and what is knowledge The Republic also addresses the purpose of education and the role o. Is the attempt to determine the way of man s life so small a matter in your eyes to determine how life may be passed by each one of us to the greatest advantage 1344d I propose therefore that we inuire into the nature of justice and injustice first as they appear in the State and secondly in the individual proceeding from the greater to the lesser and comparing them 2368e 369a The Republic An Apology The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato Alfred North WhiteheadThe Famous Republic The Republic is either reverenced reviled or just plain ignored Though it keeps resurfacing it has been pushed back often being accused of bigotry racism elitism casteism anti democratic nature the list is endless But it is beyond doubt one of the preeminent philosophical works and has been uoted referenced or adapted by almost all of the major thinkers since The ideas of Socrates have had an afterlife that is as long and varied as the thousand year journey envisioned for souls in the famous Story of Er It is impossible to catalogue the full list of impacts but Whitehead s uote introductory to this review gives adeuate flavor The practical influence of Republic is difficult to gauge than its impact on the theorizing of later thinkers over the centuries individuals have discovered in Plato s works the inspiration for undertaking political or social or educational reform and have used it as the springboard for much revolutionary thought and deedsRepublic has inspired in addition to all the expository analysis also countless creative interpretations which have shaped our vision of future possibilities limits and of extremities Many depictions of both utopian societies and their dystopian counterparts ranging from Thomas More s Utopia to Jonathan Swift s Gulliver s Travels to Aldous Huxley s Brave New World to George Orwell s 1984 have their roots in the ideal city brought to life by Socrates Glaucon and Adeimantus Contemporary films such as Gattaca and The Matrix may not owe direct inspiration to Republic but they participate in a long tradition of artistic works that ultimately trace their concerns back to the political social and metaphysical issues raised in RepublicBut in spite of all this the original work retains a reputation for being difficult and hard to penetrate This has meant that the scholars have or less appropriated this brilliantly composed treatise and that is a pity There is great suspense in every page as you eagerly try to work your way through Socrates arguments anticipating now guessing now failing now but always on the edge of your seats at the sparkle of his wit and wisdom The dialogues are constructed with an almost unbelievable care and subtlety The drama is breathtaking and all pervading even in the stock responses to theoretical or rhetorical uestions One is never allowed to sit and absorb passively but is forced to constantly interact with the dialogue It is as much fun to read as a Shakespearean dramaThe Offensive RepublicNow to examine some of the reasons why The Republic offends modern sensibilitiesMuch of the contemporary discomfort with Plato s state arises from his countenancing of censorship a rigid caste system etc But these are in a way unfortunate misunderstandings A close reading of the text would make clear that these catch all descriptions of Plato s state are not as representative as they are made out to be For example the caste system that is first to get blamed is hardly a rigid hereditary system but a strict meritocratic system that is much eual than anything that we have seen till date It involves a strict battery of tests similar to the aptitude tests of today based on which every individual is to be judged and opponents of I tests may relax these are meant to be much practical examinationsAlso the popular rendering of the title as The Republic itself is unfortunate giving it an obvious political and ideological overtone In the manuscripts and ancient citations the title of Republic is given as Politeia Constitution or Politeiai Constitutions Peri dikaiou literally concerning that which is just is sometimes listed as an alternative titleThe Misunderstood RepublicI had planned on giving a blow by blow defense of the most reviled aspects of The Republic but that is not the point I wish to make here The primary mistake in criticizing The Republic is to assume that it was meant to be a political treatise in the first place It is not The whole argument begins from a uestion of identifying what Justice is and whether it is beneficial to live a Just Life This is the crux Why and How to be Just and What is this Justice anyway That is what Socrates wants to explore He takes detours in this exploration He uses metaphors of State as larger manifestation of Caves etc But they all lead us back to the same basic uestionTo identify this basic concern we need only look at the complex structure of the dialogue itself Republic s narrative is structured in an almost circular pattern This circular pattern is complex evoking the narrative patterns of epic poems such as Iliad and Odyssey Most basically the dialogue s two main concerns defining justice and ascertaining its relationship to happiness are treated in two corresponding sections books 2 4 and books 8 9 that are interrupted by what is nominally a series of digressions in books 5 7 and 10 These nominal digressions of course create the dialogue s most memorable metaphors but they are meant to be digressions that add to the core Not the other way aroundAt its most basic level Republic is an effort to forge a consistent and meaningful redefinition of Justice The aret that is explored lies in nothing outward but rests solely in the mature reason and regard for what is beneficial to the soul Not all the details in these allegories stand up to logical analysis but they are not meant to This is made clear by the fact that The Republic s interlocutors repeatedly draw attention to the incomplete provisional and at times unsatisfactory nature of their treatment of justice happiness the ideal political community the theory of the ideas the cognitive faculties of human beings etc The inadeuacy of the method we are employing is acknowledged at 4435c d at 6504b d and in many other placesThe Personal Constitution A Constitution of the Perfect LifeThe Perfect State sketched out which is the stub of almost all criticism is only an approximation devised to arrive at the Perfect Man and that is why the so called bad aspects can be deemed acceptable The mistake as stated already is to see it as a purely political treatise while it is in fact a treatise on justice and how to live the perfect life the Constitution of a perfect life He will look at the city which is within him and take heed that no disorder occur in it such as might arise either from superfluity or from want and upon this principle he will regulate his property and gain or spend according to his means In the end the state is not fleshed out enough to really form a complete constitution for any state that can exist in reality and not just as an idea But the psychological part it is curious how this part has generated so much less criticism in comparison is we return in the end and all the way in between to the original uestion of how an individual should order his life what his virtues should be It is a political critiue piggy backing on a personal enuiry and hence any commentary of it cannot treat them differently Censorship slaves aristocracy are all wonderful aspects in an individual but not palatable in a state to modern eyes Hence we can only criticize that the greater to smaller euality is not well realized ie from state individual But then Socrates as above is always eager to make the point about the provisional nature of his metaphor which is only meant to incite thinking and not as an answer that is just not the way to deal with true lovers of truth with true philosophersCheeky counterproposal by the reviewer s alter ego Or all the personal stuff is just a convenient cloak for the political criticism that is the real purpose After all we cannot forget the historical milieu in which Plato composed it He had enough axes to grind Indeed the we approach certain aspects of the text from analytic and conceptual standpoints the we find that Socrates and his companions make innumerable assumptions and leaps of logic that is not satisfactory or fully justified Each of these can be fairly scrutinized and contested and have been We may raise any number of uestions about its relevance to our experiences and value systems Much of Republic especially its political philosophy argument for Censorship and Social structuring is at odds with modern ideals some readers will doubtless be dissatisfied with among other things its unapologetic elitism and naive almost laughable confidence in the integrity of philosopher rulers Some however may find that its critiue of ancient Athenian society opens the door to meaningful uestions about contemporary cultural practices and priorities And even meaningful uestions on how to organize our inner impulses and constitutionPhilosopher Be ThyselfWe need to understand that the Platonic Dialogues in principle are not meant to represent a simple doctrine that can be followed they instead are meant to prepare the way for philosophizing They are not easy guide books to follow They reuire work from the reader above and beyond the ideas presented That is one of the reasons for the dialogue nature in which they are structured Plato s overarching purpose in writing the Republic was to effect a change in his readers similar to the change that Glaucon and Adeimantus undergo at Socrates hands in the fictional world of the dialogue This purpose can be summed up in the word protreptic from the Greek protrepein which means turn someone forward hence propel urge on exhort Plato uses literary art which in his case includes but is not limited to philosophical argument to move his reader toward a greater readiness to adopt a just way of lifeThe dialogues are thus intended to perform the function of a living teacher who makes his students think One must philosophize to understand them One must look at the microcosm of the dialogues as well as the macrocosm of the world that we inhabit simultaneously to understand them It is in this process that the dialogues assist insist and themselves provide a training inWe can only conclude by asking uestions in the true spirit of the dialectic method Can we then say that we are convinced that justice as defined by Socrates is something intrinsically valuable Are we convinced that the just man can be happy even if he does not enjoy a reputation for justice nor any other material benefit in this life or after OR Have Socrates and his companions persuaded us that the ideal city state they describe in Republic is truly the best political community possible Do we believe that Socrates himself thinks so Is that what we take away from such a deep examination of how to live our lives Or do we let the Story of Er guide us back to the truer motives of the interlocutors I really do not know as yet but whither the argument may blow thither we go

Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ PlatoΠολιτεία

Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read characters Πολιτεία Presented in the form of a dialogue between Socrates and three different interlocutors this classic text is an enuiry into the notion of a perfect community and the ideal individual w. Let me explain why I d recommend this book to everyone Plato is stupid SeriouslyAnd it s important that you all understand that Western society is based on the fallacy ridden ramblings of an idiot Read this understand that he is not joking and understand that Plato is well and truly fucked in the headEvery single one of his works goes like thisSOCRATES Hello I will now prove this theorySTRAWMAN Surely you are wrongSOCRATES Nonsense Listen Strawman can we agree to the following wildly presumptive statement that is at the core of my argument Insert wildly presumptive statement here this time it s There is such a thing as Perfect Justice and There is such a thing as Perfect Beauty among othersSTRAWMAN Yes of course that is obviousSOCRATES Good Now that we have conveniently skipped over all of the logically necessary debate because my off the wall crazy ideas surely wouldn t stand up to any real scrutiny let me tell you an intolerably long hypothetical story Insert intolerably long hypothetical storySTRAWMAN My God Socrates You have completely won me over That is brilliant Your woefully simplistic theories should become the basis for future Western civilization That would be greatSOCRATES Ha ha My simple rhetorical device has duped them all I will now go celebrate by drinking hemlock and scoring a cameo in Bill and Ted s Excellent AdventureThe moral of the story is Plato is stupid

characters Πολιτεία

Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read characters Πολιτεία F both women and men as guardians of the people With remarkable lucidity and deft use of allegory Plato arrives at a depiction of a state bound by harmony and ruled by philosopher kin. I ve read this right through a couple of times now three or there about I think And bits of it many many times This is one of the key books of the western canon you really do need to be aware of it And you might be surprised at how freuently it is referenced particularly in science fiction everything from The Giver to Brave New World to The Matrix And while the world Plato is presenting is meant to be a utopia it is generally used as the basis for the most terrifying of dystopias One of the things I noticed this time through was all the eugenics Not just in the selective breeding of the human stock but also in the murder of the unfit I ve always been very sensitive to ideas of killing people based on some notion of the costs to society that they bring I believe such ideas undermine our very humanity to the point where the improved society would no longer be fit to be called human This book is seeking to provide an answer to the uestion what is justice or rather it starts by uestioning if it is just to help your friends and harm your enemies I m not sure it is immediately obvious that we might go from these uestions to answers concerning the division of labour in a society but that seems to be a major consideration of the theory of justice being presented here Basically people are born with various levels of merit and a just society would identify those who are favoured with whatever merit they have and it would set them to the tasks that best suit whatever merit they have Plato talks of the merit of people as a bit like being assigned to different metals not unlike in the Olympics and those people metals differentiate them into different classifications gold silver bronze and iron and each will have their proper tasks in society Once you have been assigned to one of these classifications you are pretty much stuck there There are tasks that are appropriate to your abilities and the just society is one where people are assigned tasks that best meet their abilities For this reason it is important that parents don t know their own children and that children are brought up in common by the whole of society That way you won t end up with a bronze child from two gold parents being given a gold education that they will not be able to make any use of or their bronze child wreaking havoc trying to be a philosopher king when they would have been a better baker or blacksmith or something All the same the best people are still likely to have the best children and so the society should make all proper efforts to ensure that the best breeds with the best in much the same way as you would if you were breeding race horsesThe best societies would be ruled by philosopher kings and they would not be allowed to have any possessions of their own since they ought to be focused on the good of the society as a whole There is a kind of threat to such people Plato believes they would be unlikely to really give a stuff about most things that others find very rewarding For instance wealth power prestige and so on They are likely to be seen as too other worldly even by themselves and therefore they are likely to be uninterested in taking on the responsibility of ruling and they might need to be encouraged This is all for the good because the sorts of people who want to rule are generally not the sort of people who should ever be allowed to rule This is one of the things in which me and Plato are very much on the same page although for me rather than breeding a special class of philosopher kings to rule over us I am increasingly becoming an anarchist as I struggle to think of a single person in my life who has been a worthwhile leader I ve certainly never met a philosopher I would be happy to have as my king These philosopher kings are expected to structure pretty well all aspects of life to make sure that the dumb or rather we differently abled with all too much base metal in our veins are kept content in our ignorance There are many many things that the mass of society really shouldn t be troubling their all too small minds over It is also important that the philosopher kings do what they can to make sure that the rest of society doesn t get their passions too excited by things like poetry either A large part of religion will need to go particularly the bits where the gods were seen fighting with each other or doing immoral things to women dressed up as bulls and such The allegory of the cave is the most famous part of this dialogue It concerns the nature of education What always strikes me about it is the pain that is associated with learning the truth and how once one has learnt the truth one appears to be foolish to all those around them But that the point of learning is to return to those who are ignorant and to be forced to attempt to explain the truth of existence to them This is almost always a near fatal enterprise People generally don t like being told they are wrong and being told everything you have ever thought was true is actually false is hardly the first line in a new romance I keep going on about Marx s utopia being based on the idea of there being no division of labour so it is interesting that Plato s is based on the exact opposite idea to this In fact Plato says that people really only have one thing that they are likely to be good at and that they must stick to that He may have been both the first eugenicist and the first FordistTaylorist tooHis discussion of the different types of government in book viii is a bit of a highlight to this I think I found his discussion of democracy particularly interesting I m not sure I agree with it but I thought his discussion of how it tended towards tyranny was all a bit chilling and perhaps also a bit too close to home The power of money to buy democracy the fact tyrants need to remove the best of those around them and so becomes increasingly stupid and focused on giving the people what they want mostly bread and circuses looks all uncomfortably like Trump s America writ large


10 thoughts on “PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

  1. says: Plato Æ 9 Free read PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Plato Æ 9 Free read Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Let me explain why I'd recommend this book to everyone Plato is stupid SeriouslyAnd it's important that you all understand that Western society is based on the fallacy ridden ramblings of an idiot Read this understand that he is not joking and understand that Plato is well and truly fucked in the headEvery single

  2. says: Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato characters Πολιτεία All the criticisms of Plato are valid He raises straw arguments He manipulates discussions unfairly He doesn't offer realistic solutions And so onBut he is still and for very good reason the most influential philosopher in Western civilization He makes people think Most authors we read today are trying to persuade us to ag

  3. says: Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Plato Æ 9 Free read Plato's The Republic is a great but flawed masterpiece of western literature yes it makes sense mostly some of

  4. says: Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Is the attempt to determine the way of man’s life so small a matter in your eyes—to determine how life may be passed by each one of us to the greatest advantage? 1344d I propose therefore that we inuire into the nature of justice and inju

  5. says: PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato

    PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία My re reading of this for my university course has led me to the same conclusions I found when I first read it a couple of years back except

  6. says: PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Plato Æ 9 Free read Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato

    Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία I’ve gotten into the habit of dividing up the books I’ve read by whether I read them before or after Plato’s Republic Before The Republic reading was a disorganized activity—much the same as wading through a sea of jumbled thoughts and opinions I had no basis from which to select books except by how much

  7. says: PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato Plato Æ 9 Free read characters Πολιτεία Halfway through now and the ability to see the book as a metaphor for civic and personal moral development becomes difficult The book is only useful if you are tracking the history of ideas which I am not The state Plato describes here is one that is highly prohibitive in almost every aspect Arts and culture ar

  8. says: characters Πολιτεία PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato

    Plato Æ 9 Free read PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία The Republic is where Plato lays down his ideas of an ideal state and its rulers Plato's Utopian state is one which is jus

  9. says: Read ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Æ Plato PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία I’ve read this right through a couple of times now – three or there about I think And bits of it many many times This is one of the key books of ‘the western canon’ you really do need to be aware of it And you might be surprised at how freuently it is referenced particularly in science fiction – everything from The Giver to Brave New World to The Matrix And while the world Plato is presenting is meant to be a utopia it is genera

  10. says: PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία

    PDF/EPUB Πολιτεία It's been far too long ago since I read this to write a critical review however it should be reuired reading for all students in America at the very least Oh how far we have strayed

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